So-called antifa protesters and counterprotesters have drawn considerable attention of late, after the deadly violence this month at a white nationalist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia.
“Antifa” is short for antifascist, or someone opposed to fascism, which the Oxford English Dictionary defines as “an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.”
Many people who protest against President Trump consider him to be a fascist, although others, like Gianna Riotta, an Italian journalist who argued just the opposite in a recent Atlantic essay, say he is not.
Though “antifa” has been called a group, it’s more akin to a cause, or a phenomenon, according to protesters and organizers who spoke with ABC News.
Indeed, many of the protesters who arrived in Charlottesville Aug. 12 to oppose the white nationalist rally hailed from a broad swath of different left-leaning groups. Some members of such groups are viewed as antifascist and opposed to white nationalism, but do not consider themselves to be “antifa.”
Here’s an explainer on the term:
How did ‘antifa’ originate?
Historians point to Germany as the origin of the term. The socialist publication Jacobin wrote about the origins of “antifa” in May, suggesting that men and women from Germany’s socialist labor movement who were part of an illegal resistance to the Nazis helped popularize the word in the aftermath of World War II. These resistance movements became formal political organizations with names like: “Antifaschistische Ausschüsse,” “Antifaschistische Kommittees” and “Antifaschistische Aktion,” according to Jacobin.
They were called “antifa” for short, a name that came to connote opposition to fascism from a leftist perspective.
The term has gained notoriety this year partly in response to the Trump presidency and vocal opposition to his policies.
“Right now, we’re in a very dangerous place,” Lacy MacAuley, a self-described “antifa” activist, told ABC News’ “20/20” this month. “We’re in a very troubling place.”
Does the perceived link between “antifa” and violence match the reality?
This is tricky: Some “antifa” activists ascribe to violence as a solution to combating the perceived threat of fascism, and others do not.
It’s difficult to scan right-leaning publications or social media accounts today without coming across the word “antifa” in association with acts of violence, such as using mace against white nationalists or destroying property.
These have typically been so-called black bloc protesters, or people who don black masks and clothing at rallies, and support violence to combat what they perceive to be the threat of fascism.
Black bloc protesters are frequently associated with anarchism, as opposed to socialism or communism.
The Nation, a progressive weekly magazine, defined black bloc as more of a tactic than a group in a January 2017 story about the protests that surrounded Trump’s inauguration.
“The black bloc is not a group but an anarchist tactic — marching as a confrontational united force, uniformed in black and anonymized for security,” the Nation said of black bloc. “Once deployed, the tactic has an alchemic quality, turning into a temporary object — the black bloc.”
The distinction between black bloc and someone who simply opposes fascism at a protest is sometimes lost in media coverage, protesters and organizers told ABC News.
Jabari Brisport, who is running as a Green Party candidate to represent New York City’s 35th Council District, attended the counterprotest in Charlottesville with a Black Lives Matter (BLM) group. FOX News referred to Brisport as an “antifa protester” but he told ABC News that, while it’s true that he opposes fascism, he was primarily there to support BLM.
“I arrived with a contingent from Black Lives Matter to represent ourselves and tell the world that our lives matter,” Brisport told ABC News, regarding the label of “antifa.”
“Antifa” has been given a “militant” connotation, he said, adding that such a descriptor only fits a minority of the protesters who were in attendance.
Maria Svart, national director of Democratic Socialists of America, which says it has seen a large uptick in membership since the inauguration of Trump, told ABC News that members of her group were in Charlottesville explicitly to protest against fascism and white supremacy, but that they ascribe to a policy of nonviolence.
“We’re 100 percent committed to a nonviolent political revolution,” according to a statement the organization sent to ABC News.
Who identifies with ‘antifa’?
The answer is unclear: Many protesters might consider themselves to be against fascism but define themselves by the other organizing or political groups, such as Black Lives Matter, according to people who attended the counterprotests in Charlottesville.
One community organizer, who joined the Charlottesville counterprotests and asked not to be named, told ABC News that the counterprotesters were composed of members of Black Lives Matter, members of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA), the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), also known as “wobblies,” members of the anti-racism group Showing Up for Racial Justice (SURJ), the International Socialist Organization (ISO), as well as legal aid groups, smaller left-wing groups, and clergy.
Unaffiliated anarchists and black bloc anarchists only made up a fraction of the group that attended, the organizer said, but the majority of counterprotesters would consider themselves to be antifascist, even if not aligning themselves particularly with “antifa.”